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Trigliceridele marite

Dr Alecse Valerian Ditoiu, Spitalul Fundeni

7 iulie 2014

Ce sunt trigliceridele?

Trigliceridele, reprezinta a doua componenta lipidica din ser, care se gasesc in structura unor grasimi – VLDL – si se asociaza de asemenea cu un risc crescut de ateroscleroza.

Ele au rol de sursa de energie a organismului, si scad prin regim si cresterea efortului fizic (se ard prin utilizare la nivelul muschilor)

Trigliceride normale si crescute

Valoarea concentratiei trigliceridelor serice si riscul de ateroscleroza:

  • Trigliceridele <150mg/dl, nu reprezinta un risc pentru ateroscleroza,
  • Trigliceridele intre 150-199mg/dl = valoare de granita pentru riscul de ateroscleroza
  • Trigliceridele intre 200-499mg/dl = risc crescut de ateroscleroza
  • Trigliceridele peste 500mg/dl = risc foarte mare de ateroscleroza.

De ce cresc trigliceridele?

Risc de crestere a trigliceridelor sanguine il prezinta urmatoarele situatii:

  • Alimentatie cu consumul crecut de grasimi animale, dar in caz de consum exagerat de calorii de orice fel, fara arderea lor (dulciuri, alcool, carne);  surplusul de calorii din alimentatie, care nu este ars prin efort, este transformat in ficat in trigliceride si depozitat aici si in tesutul gras.
  • Obezitatea
  • Diabetul zaharat
  • Hipotiroidia
  • Boli renale
  • Medicamente - anticonceptionale, betablocante, cortizon, estrogeni, tamoxifen
  • Sarcina - in sarcina pot creste trigliceridele

Cand scad trigliceridele?

Daca trigliceridele mari sunt daunatoare, ar trebui ca trigliceridele scazute sa fie ..folositoare.

Cel mai bine sa ai trigliceridele normale.

Trigliceridele pot fi scazute anormal in urmatoarele situatii:

  • Cancere.
    • Limfom malign ( o boala de sange de tip leucemie)
    • Cancer de pancreas
    • Gastrinomul ( o tumora care creste in duoden sau pancreas)
  • SIDA
  • Scaderea absorbtiei trigliceridelor din tubul digestiv, ca in
    • Boala Crohn ( o boala inflamatorie a intestinului)
    • Boala celiaca (in care nu se absoarbe glutenul)
    • Tratamente cu unele medicamente inclusiv antibiotice
    • Alcoolism
    • Operatii cu scoaterea unui segment de intestin
  • Hipertiroidia
  • Iradiere pe tubul digestiv
  • Tuberculoza
  • Regim vegetarian
  • Pancreatita cronica
  • Boli de ficat avansate
  • Consumul de preparate de scadere in greutate

Ce tratament sa face pentru scaderea  trigliceridelor?

Exista posibilitatea scaderii trigliceridelor anormal crescute prin urmatoarele masuri:

  • Scadere in greutate la obezi
  • Reducerea excesului alimentar de proteine, grasimi, alcool, dulciuri
  • Cresterea consului de vegetale, fructe, legume, uleiuri vegetale
  • Activitate fizica de minimum 30 minute zilnic
  • Tratament cu medicamente specifice

Dislipidemie = dezechilibru intre grasimile care dau un risc crescut de ateroscleroza (LDL colesterol si trigliceride) si cele care scad acest risc (HDL colesterol)

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